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Disclaimer: CME certification for these activities has expired. All information is pertinent to the timeframe in which it was released.


Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with Aspirin Therapy: Is it for Everyone?


GOAL
To provide healthcare professionals with current information regarding the benefits and risks of aspirin use for cardioprotection.

TARGET AUDIENCE
This activity is designed for physicians, pharmacists, and healthcare professionals who care for patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. No prerequisites required.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy take responsibility for the content, quality, and scientific integrity of this CE activity. At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Identify the cardioprotective benefits of aspirin therapy.
  • Review and analyze aspirin's effects in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
  • Evaluate the benefits versus the risks of aspirin therapy in different patient populations.
  • Discuss the role of aspirin in combination with other antithrombotic therapy.

ACCREDITATION STATEMENT
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to sponsor continuing medical education for physicians.

CREDIT DESIGNATION STATEMENT
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1.5 category 1 credits toward the AMA Physician's Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the activity.

The estimated time to complete this educational activity: 0.5 hours.

Release date: August 15, 2003. Expiration date: August 15, 2005.

This program is approved for 0.5 hours (0.05 CEUs) and is cosponsored by the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy, which is approved by the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education as a provider of continuing pharmaceutical education. A statement of CE credit will be mailed within 4 weeks of successful completion and evaluation of the program. ACPE Program# 064-999-03-244-H01.

DISCLAIMER STATEMENT
The opinions and recommendations expressed by faculty and other experts whose input is included in this program are their own. This enduring material is produced for educational purposes only. Use of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy names implies review of educational format design and approach. Please review the complete prescribing information of specific drugs or combinations of drugs, including indications, contraindications, warnings, and adverse effects, before administering pharmacologic therapy to patients.

This program is supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Bayer HealthCare.

Advanced Studies in Medicine (ISSN-1530-3004) is published by Galen Publishing, a division of Advanced Studies in Medicine, an HMG Company. PO Box 340, Somerville, NJ 08876. (908) 253-9001. Copyright ©2003 by Galen Publishing. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without first obtaining permission from the publisher. Advanced Studies in Medicine is a registered trademark of The Healthcare Media Group, LLC.

Full Disclosure Policy Affecting CME Activities:
As sponsors accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) and the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE), it is the policy of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy to require the disclosure of the existence of any significant financial interest or any other relationship a faculty member or a sponsor has with the manufacturer(s) of any commercial product(s) discussed in an educational presentation. The Program Director and Participating Faculty reported the following:

PROGRAM DIRECTOR

    Roger S. Blumenthal, MD, FACC, FCCP
    Associate Professor of Medicine
    Director, Preventive Cardiology
    Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
    Baltimore, Maryland
    • Dr Blumenthal reports receiving grant and/or research support and honoraria from Merck & Co, Inc, Novartis Corporation, Pfizer, Inc, and Wyeth.

PARTICIPATING FACULTY

    Michael Miller, MD, FACC, FAHA
    Associate Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology
    Director, Center for Preventive Cardiology
    Division of Cardiology
    University of Maryland Medical Center
    Baltimore, Maryland
    • Dr Miller reports having no financial or advisory relationships with corporate organizations related to this activity.

    Emile R. Mohler III, MD
    Director, Vascular Medicine
    University of Pennsylvania Health System
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    • Dr Mohler reports having no financial or advisory relationships with corporate organizations related to this activity.

    Eric J. Topol, MD
    Chairman, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine
    Department of Cardiology
    Cleveland Clinic Foundation
    Cleveland, Ohio
    • Dr Topol reports receiving grant and/or research support from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and Sanofi Synthelabo Inc.

Notice:
In accordance with the ACCME Standards for Commercial Support, the audience is advised that one or more articles in this continuing medical education activity may contain reference(s) to unlabeled or unapproved uses of drugs or devices.

Faculty have indicated that they have not referenced unlabeled/unapproved uses of drugs or products.

Advanced Studies in Medicine provides disclosure information from contributing authors, lead presenters, and participating faculty. Advanced Studies in Medicine does not provide disclosure information from authors of abstracts and poster presentations. The reader shall be advised that these contributors may or may not maintain financial relationships with pharmaceutical companies.

One in 5 people in the United States have cardiovascular disease (CVD), which equates to a staggering prevalence of more than 61 million people.1 About 40% of those with CVD are 65 years of age or older, and the incidence rate of chronic diseases, including CVD, is likely to increase in the coming years as our population ages.2 CVD is associated with significant mortality and, with the exception of 1918, has been the leading cause of death in the United States since 1900. Affecting both men and women, CVD results in more deaths than the next 5 leading causes of death combined (cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents, diabetes mellitus, and influenza and pneumonia). Current estimates suggest that CVD costs more than $350 billion annually. Therefore, efforts toward reducing the social and economic burden of CVD have important public health ramifications. Investigation of antiplatelet therapy with aspirin for the primary and secondary prevention of CVD was initiated 15 years ago and continues today.3,4 Guidelines developed by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology for the primary and secondary prevention of CVD recommend use of aspirin as an effective intervention in patients who can tolerate aspirin.5,6 My distinguished colleagues and I present the latest clinical information regarding the benefits and risks of aspirin therapy for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. We trust you will find the information helpful to you in managing patients who are at risk for CVD and those with a history of CVD.

REFERENCES
1. American Heart Association. 2003 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. Dallas, Tex: American Heart Association; 2002.
2. Bonow RO, Smaha LA, Smith SC, Mensah GA, Lenfant C. World Heart Day 2002. The international burden of cardiovascular disease: responding to the emerging global epidemic. Circulation. 2002;106:1602-1605.
3. Physicians' Health Study Research Group. Final report on the aspirin component of the ongoing Physicians' Health Study. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:129-135.
4. Peto R, Gray R, Collin SR, Wheatley K, Hennekens C, Jamrozik K. Randomised trial of prophylactic daily aspirin in British male doctors. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988;296:313-316.
5. Pearson TA, Blair SN, Daniels SR, et al. AHA guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke: 2002 update. Consensus panel guide to comprehensive risk reduction for adult patients without coronary or other atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Circulation. 2002; 106:388-391.
6. Smith SC, Blair SN, Bonow RO, et al. AHA/ACC guidelines for preventing heart attack and death in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: 2001 update. A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. Circulation. 2001;104:1577-1579.





Johns Hopkins Advanced Studies in Medicine (ISSN-1558-0334), is published by Galen Publishing, LLC, d/b/a ASiM, PO Box 340, Somerville, NJ 08876. (908) 253-9001. Copyright ©2012 by Galen Publishing. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without first obtaining permission from the publisher. ASiM is a registered trademark of The Healthcare Media Group, LLC.