Disclaimer: CME certification for these activities has expired. All information is pertinent to the timeframe in which it was released.
Emerging Trends in the Clinical Management of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women
To provide physicians with current information on emerging trends in the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in postmenopausal women.
This activity is designed for obstetricians, gynecologists, primary care physicians, pharmacy and therapeutic committee members, and managed care decision makers working in the area of women's health.
After reading this issue, the participant should be able to:
- Describe the latest developments in the prevention of CVD in postmenopausal women, with reference to the HERS II, WHI, and MORE study.
- Identify the cardiovascular risk factors associated with postmenopausal women.
- Understand the effect of the latest therapies on cardiovascular risk factors in the postmenopausal population.
This activity has been planned and produced in accordance with the Essential Areas and Policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to sponsor continuing medical education for physicians. The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine takes responsibility for the content, quality, and scientific integrity of this CME activity.
CREDIT DESIGNATION STATEMENT
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 2 hours in Category 1 credit toward the American Medical Association (AMA) Physicians' Recognition Award. Each physician should only claim those hours of credit that he/she actually spends in this educational activity. Credits are available until the expiration date of October 31, 2004.
This continuing education activity was produced under the supervision of Roger S. Blumenthal, MD, Director, The Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease and Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
This program is approved for 2 hours of credit (0.2 CEUs) and is cosponsored by The University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy, which is approved by the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing pharmaceutical education. ACPE Program #064-999-02-244-H01. Credits are available until the expiration date of October 31, 2004.
This continuing pharmacy education activity was produced under the supervision of Glen E. Farr, PharmD, Associate Dean of Continuing Education, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy.
This program is supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Eli Lilly and Company.
Publisher's Note and Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this issue are those of the authors, presenters, and/or panelists and are not attributable to the publisher, editor, advisory board of Advanced Studies in Medicine, or The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine or its Office of Continuing Medical Education. Clinical judgment must guide each professional in weighing the benefits of treatment against the risk of toxicity. Dosages, indications, and methods of use for products referred to in this issue are not necessarily the same as indicated in the package insert for the product and may reflect the clinical experience of the authors, presenters, and/or panelists or may be derived from the professional literature or other clinical sources. Consult complete prescribing information before administering.
Advanced Studies in Medicine (ISSN-1530-3004) is published by Galen Publishing, LLC, an HMG Company. P.O. Box 340, Somerville, NJ 08876. (908) 253-9001. Web site: www.galenpublishing.com. Copyright ©2001 by Galen Publishing, LLC. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without first obtaining permission from the publisher. Bulk postage paid at Somerville, NJ Post Office and at additional mailing offices. Advanced Studies in Medicine is a registered trademark of The Healthcare Media Group, LLC. Printed on acid-free paper. BPA Membership applied for December 2000.
Roger S. Blumenthal, MD, FACC
Director, Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease
Associate Professor of Medicine
Department of Cardiology
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
• Dr Blumenthal reports receiving grants and/or research support from Pfizer, Kos, Merck, Novartis, and Wyeth Ayerst; and has received honoraria from Pfizer, Kos, Merck, Novartis, and Wyeth Ayerst.
Nanette K. Wenger, MD
Chief of Cardiology, Grady Memorial Hospital
Clinical Professor of Medicine
Division of Cardiology
Emory University School of Medicine
• Dr Wenger reports receiving grant/research support from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly & Co., Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Wyeth Ayerst; consulting for Bristol-Myers Squibb; CV Therapeutics Inc.; Dupont Pharmaceuticals; Eli Lilly; Pfizer; Merck; SmithKlineBeecham; Women First Healthcare, Inc; and participating on the Speakers Bureau for Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Dupont Pharma, Eli Lilly & Co., Pfizer, Inc., Merck, and Wyeth Ayerst.
Advanced Studies in Medicine provides disclosure information from contributing authors, lead presenters, and participating faculty. Advanced Studies in Medicine does not provide disclosure information from authors of abstracts and poster presentations. The reader shall be advised that these contributors may or may not maintain financial relationships with pharmaceutical companies.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, with coronary heart disease (CHD) being the single leading cause of death and a significant cause of morbidity among American women. Risk factors for CHD are well documented, and much of the data available indicates that this disease is, for the most part, preventable. Unfortunately, research indicates that CHD in women remains significantly underdiagnosed, much more so than in men.
Women and their physicians often fail to relate chest pain to CVD, despite the fact that postmenopausal women are at increased risk. This issue of Advanced Studies in Medicine addresses the emerging trends in the management of CVD in postmenopausal women.
Until recently, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was considered an appropriate treatment of menopausal symptoms that provided a degree of cardioprotective benefit as well as prevention of osteoporosis. Newly published studies have raised significant concern in the medical community as well as the general patient population regarding the appropriate use of HRT and its risks in postmenopausal women.
A reprint of the article, "Raloxifene and Cardiovascular Events in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women: Four-Year Results From the MORE (Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation) Trial," is also included in this issue, providing promising information on a drug currently used for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Raloxifene's effects on risk for cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women with documented coronary disease or at increased risk for CVD is currently being tested prospectively in the Raloxifene Use for the Heart (RUTH) trial, although results will not be available for several years.
This issue includes 2 abstracts from recently published studies on HRT in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) findings and the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II). These studies are discussed in depth in a question-and-answer session with Nanette K. Wenger, MD. Dr Wenger provides important information about the diagnosis and management of CHD in postmenopausal women. Also discussed is the traditional use of hormone therapy and how recommendations have changed based on current and ongoing research.
Dr Wenger also explains the value of studies such as the RUTH trial, which is currently under way, and how information from all of these studies can be used by the practicing physician to determine appropriate management of postmenopausal women, including women with osteoporosis, or with CHD risk factors or CHD, and those with a combination of these conditions.
In another question-and-answer session, we explore the prevalence of CHD and its risk factors in postmenopausal women and how primary care physicians counsel their patients regarding these issues. Unfortunately, counseling is an area of missed opportunity for many physicians, and the reasons for this are discussed. Methods of minimizing and preventing cardiovascular risk factors are reviewed, and current recommendations for lipid-lowering therapy and lifestyle changes are given based on the latest research, including information from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel guidelines.
Finally, 2 case studies are provided to address current concepts of managing CVD and its risk factors in postmenopausal women. Patients and physicians are dealing with a rapidly changing landscape in the area of hormone therapy, with good scientific information continuing to emerge from rigorous, ongoing clinical trials. The case studies incorporate some of these current issues and, along with the other material presented, are designed to strongly encourage physicians to counsel women regarding hormone therapy based on the most current and appropriate scientific information.
*Director, The Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease and Associate Professor of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University; School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.